Process of Communication


According to W.H.Newman, “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.”

Allen Louis says “Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create an understanding in the mind of another it involves a systematic and continuous process.

To quote Norman B. Sigband, “Communication is the transmission and reception of ideas, feelings and attitudes both verbally and non-verbally.

Process of Communication

The progression of transmission and interchange of ideas, facts, feelings or actions is known as “Process of Communication”. Process of Communication is a full cycle of events from sender to the receiver and back to the sender.

Communication process consists of some interrelated steps or parts through which messages are sent form sender to receiver. The process of communication begins when the sender wants to transmit a fact, idea, opinion or other information to the receiver and ends with receiver’s feedback to the sender. The main components of communication process are sender, message, channel, receiver and feedback.

In the following, some definitions of the communication process are quoted:

Robert Kreitner defined,

“Communication process is a chain made up of identifiable links. The chain includes sender, encoding, message, receiver, decoding, and feedback.”

In the opinion of S. K. Kapur,

“The communication process is the method by which the sender transfers information and understanding to the receiver.”

According to Bovee, Thill and Schatzman,

“The communication process consists of six phases linking sender and receiver.”



The process of communication starts with a sender, the person who has an idea and wants to convey it to the receiver. In other words, we can say that the person with ideas to share is called sender. The formation of idea is the first step of communication. So, Communication process begins with the sender.

There are two factors that will determine how effective the communicator will be.

The first factor is the communicator’s attitude. It must be positive.

The second factor is the communicator’s selection of meaningful symbols, or selecting the right symbols depending on your audience and the right environment.


The conversion of the idea in to message by verbal or nonverbal method is called encoding. While encoding a message, one needs to consider what will be interpretation of the message. This process of converting the thought of the sender into message is encoding.

When the source of the communication puts together their intended message, this is referred to as ‘Encoding’.

‘Encoding’ can be defined as transforming an abstract idea into a communicable message. This is done using words, symbols, pictures, symbols and sounds.

In regards to promotion/marketing communication encoding involves transforming the organizations ideas about a product into various forms/types of promotion; advertisements, press releases, sales promotions or a personal sales pitch.


It is an important part of communication. Message is the content that sender wants to convey. A message could be verbal or non-verbal. The thought, idea, emotion or anything that the sender wants to convey is called message.

Communication can be achieved through the use of simple oral and visual codes. The letters of our alphabet constitute a basic code when they are combined into words. Common gestures and facial expressions form another. Words and gestures are seldom projected in isolation. Ideas are communicated only when symbols are combined in meaningful wholes and complete messages. Each part of the whole then becomes important for effective communication.

The speaker must select messages carefully in order to convey ideas to which receivers can react and which they can understand. The ideas must be analyzed to determine which are most suited to starting and concluding the communication and which can clarify, emphasize, define, limit and explain.


The way or the medium of sending the message is called channel. Medium or channel can be oral, written or it can be non-verbal.

Classification of channels of communication:

Visual channel: Facial expression, body language, posture, gestures, pictures & written words, electronic mails, mass media, etc.

Auditory channel: Spoken words, sounds, telephone or mobile communications, delivering audio content (radio, voicemail), etc.

Tactile channel: Touch sensations, therapeutic touch, etc.

Combined channel: Audiovisual media, consoling a person with touch & spoken words.


The receiver is the person who receives encoded message. In the best way, if it reaches to the receiver then there is no problem to the receiver to understand the massage properly.

The effective communicator always remembers a basic rule of thumb: communication succeeds only in relation to the reaction of the receiver. When the receiver interprets the symbols to mean what the sender intends, then, and only then, has true communication taken place. For effective communication, the sender must understand at least three characteristics of receivers: they have abilities, attitudes, and experiences.

First, they exercise their abilities to question and comprehend the ideas that have been transmitted. The communicator can capitalize on these abilities by providing an atmosphere that encourages questioning. Readers do read; listeners do listen. Understanding receivers’ abilities is necessary and vital in the process of communication.

Second, the receivers’ attitudes may be those of resistance, willingness, or passive neutrality. Whatever the attitude, the source must first gain his receivers’ attention and then retain it. Probably, the more he varies his approach, the more successful will be the communication.

Third, the receivers’ background, experience, and education frame the target at which the communicator must aim. The latter assumes an obligation to assess his receivers’ knowledge and to use it as his fundamental guide for the selection and transmittal of ideas. He must first reach his receivers before he can obtain their reaction.


It is a process where the received message is being understood. It is not necessary that the message reached to receiver will be understood by the receiver but decoding is a process which converts the message in to understanding. There are chances of misinterpretation of the massage.

When the receiver views or hears the message they do what is termed ‘decoding’. Decoding can be defined at the receiver interpreting the message and coming to an understanding about what the source is communicating. In promotions, an example of this would be a consumer viewing an advertisement and coming to an understanding about what the product is.


This is the last part of communication process. After receiving the message, the receiver reacts or responds to the sender. The response can be based on the perfect understanding of the message or it can be based on the misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the message. This reply from receiver to sender is called feedback. Feedback has its own importance as the success or failure of communication is decided by feedback only.

Effective receivers verify their understanding of the message with the sender. They consider words, tone, and body language when they give feedback. Forms of feedback include: Feedback may be positive or negative.

Positive feedback occurs when the receiver receives the desired response based on a clear understanding of the symbols used in the message.

Negative feedback occurs when there is an undesired response because of miscommunication. In some cases, not getting feedback is also a sort of feedback. For instance, complete silence on the part of the receiver is also an indicator of either effective communication (agreement) or a failure on the part of the communicator (inability to understand, dissent).

Feedback may be either immediate or delayed. For example, oral responses are immediately conveyed but in case of written communication, the feedback may take some time.



Noise is the term given to anything that disrupts the communication. That is, anything that prevents the audience from receiving the message the way they source intended to. It doesn’t necessarily involve and audible distraction.


In short, The communication process refers to the steps through which communication takes place between the sender and the receiver. This process starts with conceptualizing an idea or message by the sender and ends with the feedback from the receiver.

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